Table. 3—

ESC/ERS guidelines: haemodynamic definitions of pulmonary hypertension (PH)#

DefinitionCharacteristicsClinical group(s)
PHpa ≥25 mmHgAll
Pre-capillary PHpa ≥25 mmHg1. Pulmonary arterial hypertension
Ppcw ≤15 mmHg3. PH due to lung diseases
CO normal or reduced+4. Chronic thromboembolic PH
5. PH with unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms
Post-capillary PHpa ≥25 mmHg2. PH due to left heart disease
Ppcw >15 mmHg
CO normal or reduced+
    PassiveTPG ≤12 mmHg
    Reactive (out of proportion)TPG >12 mmHg
  • pa: mean pulmonary arterial pressure; Ppcw: pulmonary capillary wedge pressure; CO: cardiac output; TPG: transpulmonary pressure gradient (pa-pcw). #: all values measured at rest; : according to table 5; +: high CO can be present in cases of hyperkinetic conditions such as systemic-to-pulmonary shunts (only in the pulmonary circulation), anaemia, hyperthyroidism, etc. Reproduced from 1 with permission from the publisher.