Table. 25—

ESC/ERS guidelines: parameters with established importance for assessing disease severity, stability and prognosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension

Better prognosisDeterminants of prognosisWorse prognosis
NoClinical evidence of RV failureYes
SlowRate of progression of symptomsRapid
Longer (>500 m)#6MWTShorter (<300 m)
Peak O2 consumption >15 mL·min−1·kg−1Cardiopulmonary exercise testingPeak O2 consumption <12 mL·min−1·kg−1
Normal or near-normalBNP/NT-proBNP plasma levelsVery elevated and rising
No pericardial effusion TAPSE >2.0 cmEchocardiographic findingsPericardial effusion TAPSE <1.5 cm
Pra <8 mmHg and CI ≥2.5 L·min−1·m−2HaemodynamicsPra >15 mmHg or CI ≤2.0 L·min−1·m−2
  • RV: right ventricular; WHO FC: World Health Organization functional class; 6MWT: 6-min walk test; BNP: brain natriuretic peptide; NT-proBNP: N-terminal proBNP; TAPSE: tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; Pra: right atrial pressure; CI: cardiac index. #: depending on age; : TAPSE and pericardial effusion have been selected because they can be measured in the majority of the patients. Reproduced from 17 with permission from the publisher.