Table. 1—

Strategies aimed at preventing exacerbations

Proven efficacy
    Smoking cessation
    LABAs: salmeterol, formoterol
    Combination therapy: LABA/ICS
    Anti-influenza vaccine
    Antipneumococcal vaccine#
    Physical exercise
    Self-management plans
    LVRS in selected patients
Questioned efficacy
    Prophylactic antibiotic in selected patients
    Mucolytic agents
  • LABA: long-acting β2-agonist; ICS: inhaled corticosteroid; LVRS: lung volume reduction surgery. #: efficacy demonstrated in prevention of pneumonia but not in the prevention of exacerbations.