Common requirements for all devices reviewed

Remove mouthpiece cap if present
Orientate inhaler correctly (e.g. upright for pMDI)
Breathe out
Place mouthpiece between lips
Breathe in deeply and slowly*,#
Hold breath for 10 s
  • pMDI: pressurised metered-dose inhaler. *: breathe in deeply and quickly for dry powder inhalers; #: for “press and breathe” pMDI, actuate inhaler while breathing in.