Table. 1—

Major chronic illnesses present in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD); all may contribute to health status impairment

Extrapulmonary diseasePossible consequences in COPD patients
Cardiovascular diseaseIncreased mortality
Increased dyspnoea (chronic heart failure)
Reduced physical activity
Cancer (including lung cancer)Increased mortality
MalnutritionIncreased mortality
Low fat free (muscle) mass
Skeletal muscle weakness
Increased dyspnoea
Reduced exercise capacity
AnaemiaIncreased dyspnoea
Possibly increased mortality
DepressionIncreased mortality
DiabetesIncreased respiratory infections
Obstructive sleep apnoeaSleepiness
Pulmonary hypertension