Summary of results of studies on long-acting anticholinergic agents

First author [ref.]Sample sizeDuration weeksDrugDose µgFEV1FVCDiary symptomsNightRescueDyspnoeaExercise testHRQoLExacerbations
Versus placebo
    Littner [6]1694Tiotropium4.5NANANANANANANA
    Littner [6]1694Tiotropium9NANANANANANANA
    Littner [6]1694Tiotropium18NANANANANANANA
    Littner [6]1694Tiotropium36NANANANANANANA
    Casaburi [7]47013Tiotropium18NANANANA
    Casaburi [8]92152Tiotropium18NANA
    Donohue [9]62326Tiotropium18NANANANA
    Brusasco [10]120726Tiotropium18NANANANANA
Versus ipratropium
    Vincken [11]53552Tiotropium18NANANA
Versus salmeterol
    Donohue [9]62326Tiotropium18NANANANSNA
    Brusasco [10]120726Tiotropium18NANANANANSNANSNS
  • FEV1: forced expiratory volume in one second; FVC: forced vital capacity; HRQoL: heath-related quality of life; NS: no significant benefit versus comparator; NA: not assessed; ↑: significant benefit versus comparator group (e.g. reduced dyspnoea, increased exercise tolerance, etc.); ↓: significant inferiority versus comparator group. Reproduced, with modifications, from [5] with permission from the publisher.