Table 2. Comparison of bronchiolitis obliterans (BOS) after lung transplantation and after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)
BOS after lung transplantationBOS after allogeneic HSCT
Risk factors
    ImmunologyHLA mismatchGVH disease
    Cytomegalovirus infectionYesNot established
    Community-acquired viral infectionsSuspectedSuspected
    GORDYesNot established
Prevalence9% at 1 year
38% at 5 years
58% at 10 years
5.5%; 14% in patients with GVH disease
Clinical presentation
    HeterogeneousYes, two phenotypesYes
No increase
No increase
    AzithromycinIn subjects with alveolar neutrophiliaNot established
    Surgical treatment of GORDYesNot established
    Lung (re)tranplantationIn selected patientsIn selected patients
  • GORD: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; HLA: human leukocyte antigen; GVH: graft-versus-host.