Representative photomicrographs of individual bronchiolar lesions observed in surgical lung biopsy in patients with small airways disease. a) Cellular bronchiolitis: a narrowed and contracted airway is infiltrated by numerous inflammatory cells without a specific pattern. b) Granulomatous bronchiolitis: the small airway is surrounded by an inflammatory infiltrate with a sarcoid granuloma (arrowheads), which increases the volume of the airway wall resulting in lumen narrowing. c) Follicular bronchiolitis: the small airway is surrounded by a large lymphoid follicule (arrowheads), which increases the volume of the airway wall resulting in lumen narrowing. d) Bronchiolitis obliterans is characterised by lumen obstruction with a fibro-inflammatory polyp. e) Obliterative (constrictive) bronchiolitis: the airways lumen is narrowed by subepithelial fibrosis. Although inflammatory cells and mucous exudates are present within the lumen, no fibro-inflammatory polyp is found. f) Mucous plugging: the airway lumen is obstructed by mucus exudates.
Representative images of computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with small airways disease. a) An inspiratory CT scan in a patient with hypersensitivity pneumonitis showing mosaic pattern of attenuation. b) Expiratory CT scan in the same patient showing air trapping that is characteristic of small airways disease. c) Ill-defined centrilobular nodules in a patient with farmer's lung (personal communication; J.C. Dalphin). d) Localised micronodules branching with bronchovascular structures (tree-in-bud pattern) related to tuberculosis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis receiving treatment with anti-tumour necrosis factor-α. Reproduced from  with permission from the publisher.